Spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy.
Springs are usually made out of spring steel. Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel and hardened after fabrication. Some non-ferrous metals are also used including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring corrosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs carrying electrical current (because of its low electrical resistance).
When a spring is compressed or stretched, the force it exerts is proportional to its change in length. The rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring. That is, it is the gradient of the force versus deflection curve. An extension or compression spring has units of force divided by distance, for example lbf/in or N/m. Torsion springs have units of force multiplied by distance divided by angle, such as N?m/rad or ft?lbf/degree. The inverse of spring rate is compliance, that is: if a spring has a rate of 10 N/mm, it has a compliance of 0.1 mm/N. The stiffness (or rate) of springs in parallel is additive, as is the compliance of springs in series.
Depending on the design and required operating environment, any material can be used to construct a spring (such as stainless steel springs), so long as the material has the required combination of rigidity and elasticity: technically, a wooden bow is a form of spring.
1.Control the mechanical movement, such as the valve springs in the internal combustion engine, control springs in clutch, etc..
2.Absorb the vibration and impact energy, such as the buffer spring in automobiles and railway carriages, the vibration absorbing spring in coupling, and so on.
3.Storage and output energy as a power, such as clocks spring and firearms spring.
4.As dynamometer components, such as the dynamometer springand balance spring. The ratio of the load and deformation of the spring called spring stiffness, the greater stiffness, the harder spring. Besides, there are also kinds of springs used in other field, such as battery contacts spring.
Spring is widely used as a resilient element in the mechanical and electronic industries. The spring can produce a larger elastic deformation while loaded, and convert mechanical work or the kinetic energy to deformation energy. Remove the load the deformation of the spring disappears and convert the deformation to mechanical power or kinetic energy.
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