A computer case is also known as a "computer chassis", "tower", "system unit", "base unit" or simply "case". Also sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "CPU" or "hard drive", which said by Computer Case Manufacturer, it is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse).
Cases are usually constructed from steel (often SECC — Steel, electrogalvanized, cold-rolled, coil) or aluminium. Plastic is sometimes used, and other materials such as glass, wood and even Lego blocks have appeared in home-built cases.
Cases can come in many different sizes (known as form factors). The size and shape of a computer case is usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard, since it is the largest component of most computers. Consequently, personal computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions as well, since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures.
For example, a case designed for an ATX motherboard and power supply may take on several external forms, such as a vertical tower (designed to sit on the floor, height > width) or a flat desktop (height < width) or pizza box (height ≤ 5 cm (2 in), designed to sit on the desk under the computer's monitor). Full-size tower cases are typically larger in volume than desktop cases, with more room for drive bays and expansion slots. Desktop cases—and mini-tower cases under about 18 inches high—are popular in business environments where space is at a premium.
Mid Tower Case have either a single side panel which may be removed in order to access the internal components or a large cover that saddles the chassis. Traditionally, most computer cases required computer case screws to hold components and panels in place (i.e. motherboard, PSU, drives, and expansion cards). Recently[when?] there is a trend toward "screwless" cases, in which components are held together with snap-in plastic rails, thumbscrews, and other methods that do not require tools; this facilitates quick assembly and modification of computer hardware.
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